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Tawheed explained in detail


Chapter 2: The Islamic Concept of Tawheed

(Monotheism)

The first religious fundamental to which Allah’s Messenger called to, was Tawheed (the Oneness of Allah), which is expressed by the testification, ‘La ilaha illa Allah’ (meaning, none has the right to be worshiped except Allah). He (salalla alahi wa wasalam )spent thirteen years in Makkah explaining the Oneness of Allah  and not calling towards any other aspect of the religion. This is because the correct belief (Aqeedah) is the foundation of Islam. Only those actions and statements that stem from the correct belief (Aqeedah) are acceptable to Allah and therefore, it is a Muslim’s duty to safeguard his Aqeedah against all defects.

The Islamic Concept of Tawheed is divided into three categories –Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah, Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah, and Tawheed al-Asma was-Sifaat; which respectively mean that Allah is One…

• Without partner in His dominion and His Actions

• Without similitude in His Essence and Attributes

• Without rival in His Divinity and Worship

1. Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah: Belief in the Lordship of

Allah

Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah means to believe that Allah alone is the Rabb (the Creator, Provider, Sustainer, etc.) He has no partner in

His Dominion and Actions. Allah alone has the power to benefit or harm, the power to change destiny, and He alone is truly Self-

Sufficient (As-Samad) upon whom all the creation depends, as He says: “Allah created all things and He is the Wakeel (Trustee, Disposer of affairs, Guardian) of all things”. (Surah Zumar Ayah 62). “To Him belongs the keys of the Heavens and the Earth. He (Allah) enlarges and restricts provisions to whomever He Wills. Surely, He has Knowledge of everything”. (Surah Shurah Ayah 12)

Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah also includes the belief that Allah is Unique (One, single) and incomparable. He has no wife nor offspring, no mother nor father. “Say, He is Allah, the One and Only. Allah, the Eternal – the Absolute: He begets not, nor is He begotten”. (Surah Ikhlas Ayaht 1-3). Allah does not merge in any living or dead creature, nor anything is part of Allah. Neither living nor dead merges in the Being of Allah, nor is any creature part of Him. All creatures are created by His Order and are subservient to His Will.

The Arab Pagans believed in Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah

The belief in Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah was never denied by any of the previous nations, except few who denied the existence of

Allah, like Fir’awn (Pharaoh), the atheists and communists of this age. The Arab Pagans amongst whom the Messenger of Allah (salalla alahi wasalam) was sent believed in Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah. They believed in Allah to the extent that they declared Allah as the Supreme Lord.

They acknowledged Him as the Creator of the Universe and considered Him to be the Sovereign and the Provider of sustenance, as is clear from the verses of Surah al-Muminoon, where Allah says: “Say” (to the disbelievers): “Whose is the Earth and whosoever is therein? If you know”! “They will say: “It is Allah’s”… Say “Who is the Lord of the seven Heavens and the Lord of the Great Throne?” They will say: “Allah’s” … Say: “In whose Hands is the sovereignty of everything? And He protects all, while against whom there is no protector, if you know?” They will say: “(All this belongs) to Allah.”(Surah Muminoon Ayah 84-89)

However, the belief in Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah did not make them Muslims, because they lacked Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah (Oneness of Allah’s Worship). Even though, the Arab Pagans believed that Allah was their Lord, they did not direct all forms of worship to Him alone. They believed that Angels and pious people had special status with Allah, and thus could intercede with Allah for them. They would say: “We only worship them so that they may bring us closer to Allah.”(Surah Zumar Ayah 3). Calling upon Allah for one’s needs is a great act of worship, and if it is directed towards other than Allah, it leads to Shirk in the worship. Allah revealed: “They worship besides Allah things that hurt them not, nor profit them, and they say”; “These are only our intercessors with Allah.” (Surah Yunus Ayah 18)

Thus, Allah declared their act of seeking intercession with Allah as Shirk and termed them as Kafirun and Mushrikeen. He ordered His Messenger  to proclaim, “I worship not that, which you worship, nor will you worship that which I worship, and I shall not worship that you are worshiping, nor will you worship that which I worship.(Surah Kafiroon Ayah 2-5). These verses of the Noble Qur’aan establish the importance of the Tawheed of worship along with the Tawheed of Lordship.

Essential Points: From the above, we understand that the Arab Pagans, despite their ignorance and arrogance, completely understood the meaning of Ibaadah (worship). They believed that intercession is a form of worship, and did not deny that calling upon pious people amounted to worshiping them. They would call their idols, ‘Aaliha’ (pl. of Ilah lit. meaning, One, who is worshiped). This is in sharp contrast of the belief of the grave worshipers of today, who make the engraved as intercessors with Allah, and yet do not consider it to be Shirk!

Posted by Jafar

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